Evaluation of glycemic index determination method

Ratna Sari Listyaningrum, Didah Nur Faridah, Puspo Edi Giriwono, Masayu Nur Ulfa

Abstract


In Indonesia, determination of glycemic index (GI) was performed according to approved protocols prescribed by FAO (1998) and BPOM (2011); but, remarkable differences among these methods exist, primarily regarding the points of recommendation. This present work aimed to evaluate the technical steps of the protocol for determining GI between two protocols recommended by BPOM (2011) and FAO (1998). Ten healthy subjects (age 21-36 years old and body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were recruited for the study. The blood glucose was measured with repeated glucose trials, while the number of sampling points for the blood glucose test was also investigated. The range of GI for rice, wheat cookies, NS-cookies, HMT-cookies were 68 – 77; 55 – 60; 35 – 43; 35 – 41, respectively, using the combination of three different aspects between FAO and BPOM protocol. Noticeably, the difference in glucose trials did not cause significant variations to GI (n=10, p>0.05). Regarding statistical performance between methods, the Coefficient of Variance (CV) resulted from BPOM protocol (10 subjects, 5 sampling points) ranged 37 to 49%, being slightly higher compared to CV obtained from FAO protocol (7 subjects with triplicate glucose trials, 7 sampling points), i.e., 33% and 35%. The conclusive remark was noticed, that the most satisfying protocol for determination of GI was achieved using no less than two reference food trials, seven subjects, and seven blood sampling points.


Keywords


arrowroot; cookies; glycemic index

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References


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Moses, R. G., Barker, M., Winter, M., Petocz, P., & Brand-Miller, J. C. (2009). Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial. Diabetes Care, 32(6), 996–1000. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0007

Odenigbo, A., Rahimi, J., Ngadi, M., Amer, S., & Mustafa, A. (2012). Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2(7), 280–289. https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v2i7.83

Stevenson, E. J., Williams, C., Mash, L. E., Phillips, B., & Nute, M. L. (2006). Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(2), 354–360. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/84.2.354

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Wolever, T. M.S., Jenkins, D. J. A., Vuksan, V., Jenkins, A. L., Wong, G. S., & Josse, R. G. (1992). Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care, 15(4), 562–564. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.4.562

Wolever, Thomas M.S., Vorster, H. H., Björck, I., Brand-Miller, J., Brighenti, F., Mann, J. I., Ramdath, D. D., Granfeldt, Y., Holt, S., Perry, T. L., Venter, C., & Wu, X. (2003). Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: Interlaboratory study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(3), 475–482. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601551

Barakatun Nisak, M. Y., Ruzita, A. T., Norimah, A. K., Nor Azmi, K., & Fatimah, A. (2009). Acute effect of low and high glycemic index meals on post-prandial glycemia and insulin responses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5(1), 11–20

Bouché, C., Rizkalla, S. W., Luo, J., Vidal, H., Veronese, A., Facher, N., Fouquet, C., Lang, V., & Slama, G. (2002). Five-week, low-glycemic index diet decreases total fat mass and improves plasma lipid profile in moderately overweight nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care, 25(5), 822–828. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.5.822

BPOM. (2011). Metode standar penentuan indeks glikemik pangan. Lampiran VI Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Nomor HK. 03.1.23.12.11.09909 Tahun 2011 tentang pengawasan klaim dalam label dan iklan pangan olahan. BPOM, Jakarta.

Chung, H. J., Liu, Q., & Hoover, R. (2009). Impact of annealing and heat-moisture treatment on rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch levels in native and gelatinized corn, pea and lentil starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 75(3), 436–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.08.006

Faridah, D. N. (2005). Sifat fisiko kimia tepung Suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus B1.) dan indeks glisemiknya. In Teknologi dan industri pangan (Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 254–259)

FAO/WHO. (1998). Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 66. FAO, Rome.

International Organization for Standardization (2010).International Standard 26642:2010, 2010 (Determination of the glycemic index (GI) and recommendation for food classification), p.18.

Liu, S., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., Hu, F. B., Franz, M., Sampson, L., Hennekens, C. H., & Manson, J. A. E. (2000). A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(6), 1455–1461. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1455

Gilbertson, H.R., Brand-Miller, J.C., Thorburn, A.W., Evans, S., Chondros, P. & Werther, G.A. (2001). The effect of flexible low glycemic diets on glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 24(7),1137-1147

Marsono, Y. (2002). Indeks glikemik umbi-umbian. In agriTECH (Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 13–16)

Mir, J. A., Srikaeo, K., & García, J. (2013). Effects of amylose and resistant starch on starch digestibility of rice flours and starches. International Food Research Journal, 20(3), 1329–1335

Moses, R. G., Barker, M., Winter, M., Petocz, P., & Brand-Miller, J. C. (2009). Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial. Diabetes Care, 32(6), 996–1000. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0007

Odenigbo, A., Rahimi, J., Ngadi, M., Amer, S., & Mustafa, A. (2012). Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 2(7), 280–289. https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v2i7.83

Stevenson, E. J., Williams, C., Mash, L. E., Phillips, B., & Nute, M. L. (2006). Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(2), 354–360. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/84.2.354

Syahbanu, F. (2015). Modifikasi pati garut (Maranta arundinaceae L.) dengan hidrolisis asam, siklus autoclaving-cooling, dan heat-moisture treatment (HMT) untuk menghasilkan pati resisten tipe III (RS3). Thesis. Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor

The Effect of Flexible Low Glycemic Diets on Glycemic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes. (2001). Diabetes Care, 24(7).

Wolever, T. M.S., Jenkins, D. J. A., Jenkins, A. L., & Josse, R. G. (1991). The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54(5), 846–854. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/54.5.846

Wolever, T. M.S., Jenkins, D. J. A., Vuksan, V., Jenkins, A. L., Wong, G. S., & Josse, R. G. (1992). Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care, 15(4), 562–564. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.4.562

Wolever, Thomas M.S., Vorster, H. H., Björck, I., Brand-Miller, J., Brighenti, F., Mann, J. I., Ramdath, D. D., Granfeldt, Y., Holt, S., Perry, T. L., Venter, C., & Wu, X. (2003). Determination of the glycaemic index of foods: Interlaboratory study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(3), 475–482. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601551




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/pharmaciana.v11i2.20666

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