Performance and Emissions of Nanoadditives in Diesel Engine: A review

Nouby M. Ghazaly, Ahmed N. Abdulhameed


Nowadays, the demand for energy and fossil fuels has widely increased as a result of the continuous growth of the population. However, the continued use of traditional fuels as the primary source of energy has resulted in various environmental challenges related to climate change and global warming. This has prompted researchers to look for more eco-friendly and sustainable fuel alternatives with a minimal amount of engine modification and emission treatment techniques. Amongst the suggested alternative fuels, biofuels, biofuel/diesel blends, and the incorporation of nanoparticles into fuels. The nanoparticle diesel additives played a vital role in increasing engine performance as well as retarding harmful emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), and particulate matter (PM). Metal-oxides nanoadditive such as aluminum oxide (Al2O3), ceric oxide (CeO2), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) act as oxygen catalysts and promote proper mixing of fuel and air, resulting in more efficient combustion and decreased emissions. The incorporation of nanometal-based additives, including iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) accelerated the fuel evaporation rate and increased the probability of fuel ignition. Carbon-based nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), and graphene oxide (GO) are promising fuel nanoadditives owing to their metal-free composition. In addition, carbon-based additives enhanced the thermal conductivity of fuel and increased active sites available for chemical reactions, which led to improved engine performance.


Diesel engine; Nanoparticle; Biofuel; Combustion; Performance; Emission

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Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Elektro Komputer dan Informatika
ISSN 2338-3070 (print) | 2338-3062 (online)
Organized by Electrical Engineering Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
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