Job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior: The role of affective commitment

Debora Eflina Purba, Fahri Muhammad


Previous research showed inconsistent findings in the relationship between job insecurity and OCB, indicating an underlying mechanism to occur between the variables. This study aimed to examine affective commitment as a mediator in the relationship between job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Drawing on organizational identification theory, we took on the perspective of organizational concern motive and suggested affective commitment to mediate the job insecurity and OCB relationship. The study employs a correlational design with an accidental sampling technique. Participants of the study were employees of private and state-owned companies in Indonesia (N = 217). Data were analyzed on Hayes’s PROCESS macro on SPSS statistic software. Results show a significantly negative relationship between job insecurity and OCB, significantly negative relationship between job insecurity and affective commitment relationship, and a significantly positive relationship between affective commitment and OCB. Furthermore, affective commitment is found to mediate the relationship between job insecurity and OCB, confirming the organizational concern motive of OCB as a consequence of job insecurity. The study implies that organizations should eliminate job insecurity if possible, or design interventions to develop employee’s oneness with the organization. 


affective commitment; job insecurity; organizational citizenship behavior

Full Text:



Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Aslam, M. S., Ahmad, F., & Anwar, S. (2012). Job burnout and organizational citizenship behaviors: Mediating role of affective commitment. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(8), 8120-8129.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Blau, P. (1986). Exchange and power in social life (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Bosman, J., & Buitendach, J. H. (2005). Work locus of control and dispositional optimism as antecedents to job insecurity. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 17-23.

Cheng, G. H., & Chan, D. K. (2008). Who suffers more from job insecurity? A meta-analytic review. Applied Psychology, 57(2), 272-303.

Chiaburu, D. S., Oh, I.-S., Berry, C. M., Li, N., & Gardner, R. G. (2011). The five-factor model of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(6), 1140-1166.

De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2007). Job insecurity in temporary versus permanent workers: Associations with attitudes, well-being, and behaviour. Work & Stress, 21(1), 65-84.

De Cuyper, N., Notelaers, G., & De Witte, H. (2009). Job insecurity and employability in fixed-term contractors, agency workers, and permanent workers: Associations with job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(2), 193-205.

De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literature on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6.

De Witte, H., & Näswall, K. (2003). ‘Objective’vs.‘Subjective’job insecurity: Consequences of temporary work for job satisfaction and organizational commitment in four European countries. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 24(2), 149-188.

Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders: Understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(4), 624-668.

Farzaneh, J., Dehghanpour Farashah, A., & Kazemi, M. (2014). The impact of person-job fit and person-organization fit on OCB: The mediating and moderating effects of organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. Personnel Review, 43(5), 672-691.

Feather, N. T., & Rauter, K. A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviours in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 81-94.

Felfe, J., Yan, W., & Six, B. (2008). The impact of individual collectivism on commitment and its influence on organizational citizenship behaviour and turnover in three countries. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2), 211-237.

Guzman, F. A., & Espejo, A. (2015). Dispositional and situational differences in motives to engage in citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Research, 68(2), 208-215.

Halbesleben, J. R. B., Bowler, W. M., Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (2010). Organizational concern, prosocial values, or impression management? How supervisors attribute motives to organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(6), 1450-1489.

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Publications.

Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, revised and expanded (2nd ed., Vol. 2). McGraw-Hill.

Huang, G.-H., Lee, C., Ashford, S., Chen, Z., & Ren, X. (2010). Affective job insecurity: A mediator of cognitive job insecurity and employee outcomes relationships. International Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), 20-39.

Kang, D., Gold, J., & Kim, D. (2012). Responses to job insecurity: The impact on discretionary extra-role and impression management behaviors and the moderating role of employability. Career Development International, 17(4), 314-332.

Kartika, G., & Purba, D. E. (2018). Job satisfaction and turnover intention: The mediating effect of affective commitment. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 1(2), 100-106.

Lam, C. F., Liang, J., Ashford, S. J., & Lee, C. (2015). Job insecurity and organizational citizenship behavior: Exploring curvilinear and moderated relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 499-510.

Lam, C. F., & Mayer, D. M. (2014). When do employees speak up for their customers? A model of voice in a customer service context. Personnel Psychology, 67(3), 637-666.

Lee, C., Huang, G.-H., & Ashford, S. J. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 335-359.

Lee, Y. H., Woo, B., & Kim, Y. (2018). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of affective commitment. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(3), 373-382.

Liu, W., Gong, Y., & Liu, J. (2014). When do business units benefit more from collective citizenship behavior of management teams? An upper echelons perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 523-534.

MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Ahearne, M. (1998). Some possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance. Journal of Marketing, 62(3), 87-98.

Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2), 103-123.

Masia, U., & Pienaar, J. (2011). Unravelling safety compliance in the mining industry: examining the role of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment as antecedents. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 1-10. sajip.v37i1.937

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Sage.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Jackson, T. A., McInnis, K. J., Maltin, E. R., & Sheppard, L. (2012). Affective, normative, and continuance commitment levels across cultures: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 225-245.

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2011). Affective organizational commitment and citizenship behavior: Linear and non-linear moderating effects of organizational tenure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 528-537.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.

Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Sage Publications.

Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48(4), 775-802.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 262-270.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestion for future research. Human Performance, 10(2), 133-151.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Purba, D. E., Oostrom, J. K., Van Der Molen, H. T., & Born, M. P. (2015). Personality and organizational citizenship behavior in Indonesia: The mediating effect of affective commitment. Asian Business and Management, 14(2).147-170.

Reisel, W. D., Probst, T. M., Chia, S.-L., Maloles, C. M., & König, C. J. (2010). The effects of job insecurity on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, deviant behavior, and negative emotions of employees. International Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), 74-91.

Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: a motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1306-1314.

Schnake, M., & Hogan, E. (1995). Organizational citizenship behavior and organizational effectiveness. Southern Management Association Proceedings. Georgia: Southern Management Association, 93-97.

Schreurs, B. H. J., Hetty van Emmerik, I. J., Günter, H., & Germeys, F. (2012). A weekly diary study on the buffering role of social support in the relationship between job insecurity and employee performance. Human Resource Management, 51(2), 259-279.

Staufenbiel, T., & König, C. J. (2010). A model for the effects of job insecurity on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 101-117.

Stynen, D., Forrier, A., Sels, L., & De Witte, H. (2015). The relationship between qualitative job insecurity and OCB: Differences across age groups. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(3), 383-405.

Tian, Q., Zhang, L., & Zou, W. (2014). Job insecurity and counterproductive behavior of casino dealers--the mediating role of affective commitment and moderating role of supervisor support. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 29-36.

Wang, H., Lu, C., & Lu, L. (2014). Do people with traditional values suffer more from job insecurity? The moderating effects of traditionality. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 107-117.

Wasti, S. A., & Can, O. (2008). Affective and normative commitment to organization, supervisor, and coworkers: Do collectivist values matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(3), 404-413.

Wei, Z., Mian, Z., & Hai, L. (2012). Performance appraisal process and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(7), 732-752.

Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601–617.

Wong, Y.-T., Wong, C.-S., Ngo, H.-Y., & Lui, H.-K. (2005). Different responses to job insecurity of Chinese workers in joint ventures and state-owned enterprises. Human Relations, 58(11), 1391–1418.

Wu, C.-H., Liu, J., Kwan, H. K., & Lee, C. (2016). Why and when workplace ostracism inhibits organizational citizenship behaviors: An organizational identification perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(3), 362-378.

Zhao, X., Lynch Jr, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197–206.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

HUMANITAS: Indonesian Psychological Journal
ISSN 1693-7236 (print), 2598-6368 (online)
Email :

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

View My Stats