Parenting style and empathy in children: The mediating role of family communication patterns

Sarrah Hasyim Abdullah, Rose Mini Agoes Salim

Abstract


Behavior problems among children in Indonesia are still high. The number of children involved in legal problems shows that there are existing moral problems. A crucial component in morals is empathy. Family, as the primary system in a child's life, has a significant influence on the development of empathy in children. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of parenting style on empathy in children through family communication patterns in early childhood in Indonesia. As many as 233 parents of 6 – 8 years old children participated in this study. The Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), Basic Empathy Scale - Parent Report (BES-PR) and Family Communication Patterns-Revised (FCP-R) were used to collect the data. The results of this study indicate that family communication patterns mediate the relationship between parenting style and empathy in children. Conversational communication pattern mediate the effect of both authoritative parenting and permissive parenting on child's empathy independently. Conformity communication pattern only mediate the influence of authoritarian parenting on empathy in children. The current findings add information about the understanding about parenting strategies and interactions as well as the role of the family in the development of empathy in children.


Keywords


children; empathy; family communication patterns; parenting style

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akhtar, Z. (2012). The effect of parenting style of parents on the attachment styles of undergraduate students. Language in India, 12(1), 555–566.

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines, J. Gewirtz, & J. L. Lamb (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development (1st ed., pp. 45–104). New York: Psychology Press.

Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 163–175. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JADD.0000022607.19833.00

Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1 PART 2), 1–103. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0030372

Belsky, J. (2005). Family influences on psychological development. Psychiatry, 4(7), 41–44. https://doi.org/10.1383/psyt.2005.4.7.41

Berns, R. M. (2013). Child, family, school, community: Socialization and support (9th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Borba, M. (2001). Building moral intelligence : the seven essential virtues that teach kids to do the right thing. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Children as Criminals Increase. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2018, from http://rakyatkaltara.prokal.co/read/news/10976-anak-sebagai-pelaku-kejahatan-meningkat.html

Cornell, A. H., & Frick, P. J. (2007). The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 305–318. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701444181

Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487

Farokhzad, P. (2015). Childrearing styles and family communication patterns among university students. International Journal of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences, 9(5), 1711–1716.

Gantiva, C., & Cendales, R. (2018). Is there really a relationship between empathy and aggression ? Evidence from physiological and self-report measures. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518776999

Gilli, S. (2016). Gender bias in parenting styles and its contribution to gender differences in empathy. University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Halim, D. (2019). Kasus anak berhadapan dengan hukum tetap tertinggi (Child cases dealing with law, the highest dominated sexual crimes). Retrieved from Kompas website: https://beritagar.id/artikel/berita/kasus-anak-berhadapan-dengan-hukum-tetap-tertinggi

Hinton, P. R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I., & Cozens, B. (2004). SPSS explained. London: Routledge.

Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implication for caring and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805851.

Kiare, J. W. (2015). Influence of parental characteristics on preschool children’s moral development in Nairobi Country, Kenya. University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Koerner, A. F. (2014). Family communication. In C. R. Berger (Ed.), Interpersonal communication: Handbook of communication science (pp. 419–441). Davis: De Gruyter Mouton.

Koerner, A. F., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002). Understanding family communication patterns and family functioning: The roles of conversation orientation and conformity orientation. Annals of the International Communication Association, 26(1), 36–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2002.11679010

Kong, A., Thorleifsson, G., Frigge, M. L., Vilhjalmsson, B. J., Young, A. I., Thorgeirsson, T. E., & … Stefansson, K. (2018). The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science, 359(6374), 424–428. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan6877

Kuntoro, I. A., Peterson, C. C., & Slaughter, V. (2017). Culture, parenting, and children’s theory of mind development in Indonesia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1389–1409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117725404

McDonald, N. M., & Messinger, D. S. (2011). The development of empathy: How, when, and why. In J. J. Sangineti, A. Acerbi, & J. A. Lombo (Eds.), Moral behavior and free will: A neurobiological and philosophical aprroach (pp. 341–368). London: If Press.

Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys : Linkages with social behaviors and peer preference. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(1), 73–86. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005174102794

Morelli, S. A., Lieberman, M. D., & Zaki, J. (2015). The emerging study of positive empathy. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 9/2 (2015), 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/Spc3.12157

Power, T. G. (2013). Parenting dimensions and styles : A brief history and recommendations for future research. Childhood Obesity, 9(August), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2013.0034

Primastika, W. (2018). Penyebab kriminalitas anak: Kurang kasih sayang pengakuan sosial (Cause of Criminality on children: Lack of affection and social recognition).

Querido, J. G., Warner, T. D., & Eyberg, S. M. (2002). Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 4416(October 2014), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3102

Reitman, D., Rhode, P. C., Hupp, S. D., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire–Revised. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24(2), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015344909518

Riany, Y. E., Cuskelly, M., & Meredith, P. (2017). Parenting style and parent–child relationship: A comparative study of Indonesian parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(12), 3559–3571. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0840-3

Sánchez-Pérez, N., Fuentes, L. J., Jolliffe, D., & González-Salinas, C. (2014). Assessing children’s empathy through a Spanish adaptation of the Basic Empathy Scale: Parent’s and child’s report forms. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(DEC), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0840-3

Sangawi, H. S., Adams, J., & Reissland, N. (2015). The effects of parenting styles on behavioral problems in primary school children: A Cross-cultural review. Asian Social Science, 11(22), 171–186. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v11n22p171

Santrock, J. W. (2011). Child development: An introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2014). Developmental psychology: Childhood & adolescence. USA: Wadsworth.

Sidanius, J., Kteily, N., Sheehy-skeffington, J., Ho, A. K., Sibley, C., & Duriez, B. (2013). You’re inferior and not worth our concern : The interface between empathy and social dominance orientation. Journal of Personality, 81(3), 313–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12008

Solfema. (2013). Parenting styles, school culture, society culture, and teenagers’ empathy. Journal of Science Education, 19(2), 149–154. https://doi.org/10.17977/jip.v19i2.4206

Telle, N. T., & Pfister, H. R. (2015). Positive empathy and prosocial behavior: A neglected link. Emotion Review, 8(2), 154–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073915586817

Thompson, R. A. (2014). Conscience development in early childhood. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Development (2nd ed., pp. 73–92). New York: Psychology Press.

Timpano, K. R., Keough, M. E., Mahaffey, B., Schmidt, N. B., & Abramowitz, J. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(3), 151–164. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.24.3.151

Vieira, E. T. (2015). Family communication patterns, sympathy, perspective-taking, and girls’ thoughts about interpersonal violence. Journal of Family Violence, 30(5), 607–619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-015-9705-y




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26555/humanitas.v17i1.13126

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



HUMANITAS: Indonesian Psychological Journal
ISSN 1693-7236 (print), 2598-6368 (online)
Email : humanitas@psy.uad.ac.id

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

web
statistics View My Stats