Factor structure of the Indonesian version of the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire

Fitri Ariyanti Abidin, Rismijati E Koesma, Poeti Joefiani, Juke Roosjati Siregar


The use of a dimensional approach in assessment tools of parenting style in Indonesia is still very limited. Parent as Social Context Questionnaire (PSCQ)-Adolescent Report is widely known as a dimensional-parenting style assessment tool. This study examined the factor structure and reliability of the Indonesian version of the PSCQ-Adolescent Report. This 24-item questionnaire measures six parenting dimensions: warmth, structure, autonomy support, rejection, chaos, and coercion, with four items in each dimension. Participants were 1476 Junior High School Students aged 11-16 years old (48% male, 52% female), recruited from six main islands in Indonesia. Our findings confirmed the original six unipolar factor structures of the Indonesian PSCQ. Of the six factors, five factors with the exception of coercion had acceptable to good reliability. The finding that coercion had no negative correlation with the positive dimensions such as warmth and autonomy support differs from findings in the West, indicating that coercion is considered negative in Western culture but is not the case in Indonesia. This study concluded that PSCQ-Adolescent Report can be used as a valid and reliable measure of the parenting style of Indonesian adolescents.


Adolescent; parenting dimension; PSCQ

Full Text:



Baumrind, D. (2013). Is a pejorative view of power assertion in the socialization process justified? Review of General Psychology, 17(4), 420-427. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033480

Bean, R. A., Barber, B. K., & Crane, D. R. (2006). Parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control among African American youth. Journal of Family Issues, 27(10), 1335-1355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X06289649

Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Cultural approaches to parenting. Parenting, Science and Practice, 12(2-3), 212-221. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.683359

Branje, S. (2018). Development of parent-adolescent relationships: Conflict interactions as a mechanism of change. Child Development Perspectives, 12(3), 171-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12278

Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65(4), 342-354. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00806.x

Chao, R. K., & Aque, C. (2009). Interpretations of parental control by Asian immigrant and European American youth. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(3), 342-354. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015828

Chew, W. C. E., & Wang, C. K. J. (2015). Parents as social context in youth sport: A validation of the PASCQ with adolescent Singapore athletes PASCQ with adolescent Singapore athletes. National Institute of Education, (June), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/jtp.2014.10.

Farkas, M. S., & Grolnick, W. S. (2010). Examining the components and concomitants of parental structure in the academic domain. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 266-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-010-9176-7

Fithria. (2010). Family warmth dimension of bearing. Idea Nursing Journal, 1 No.1, 21-26.

Grolnick, W. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). Issues and challenges in studying parental control: Toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives, 3(3), 165-170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00099.x

Haggerty, K., McGlynn-Wright, A., & Klima, T. (2013). Promising parenting programs for reducing adolescent problem behaviors. Journal Child Service, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.1108/JCS-04-2013-0016

Hair Jr, J. F., William, C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (Seventh Ed). Harlow: Pearson.

Hardy, S. A., White, J. A., Zhang, Z., & Ruchty, J. (2011). Parenting and the socialization of religiousness and spirituality. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(3), 217-230. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021600

Hoskins, D. (2014). Consequences of parenting on adolescent outcomes. Societies, 4(3), 506-531. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc4030506

McLachlan, J., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & McGregor, L. (2010). Rejection sensitivity in childhood and early adolescence: Peer rejection and protective effects of parents and friends. Journal of Relationships Research, 1(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.1375/jrr.1.1.31

Nurhidayah, S., Prestiana, N. D. I., & Bayani, I. (2012). Pengasuhan, peer group, self efficacy dan perilaku seks pada remaja di Kota Bekasi (Parenting, peer group, self efficacy and sexual behavior among adolescents in Bekasi City). Jurnal Soul, 5(2), 67-79.

Paolo, V., Bornstein, M. H., Haynes, O. M., Rossi, G., & Venuti, P. (2012). Infant behavior and development: A cross-cultural comparison of mothers beliefs about their parenting very young children. Infant Behavior and Development, 35(3), 479-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.02.006

Power, T. G. (2013). Parenting dimensions and styles: A brief history and recommendations for future research. Childhood Obesity, 9(s1), S-14-S-21. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2013.0034

Riany, Y. E., Meredith, P., & Cuskelly, M. (2016). Understanding the influence of traditional cultural values on Indonesian parenting. Marriage & Family Review, 4929(March). https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2016.1157561

Rubin, K., Fredstrom, B., & Bowker, J. (2008). Future directions in friendship in childhood and early adolescence. Social Development, 17(4), 1085-1096. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00445.x

Skinner, E., Johnson, S., & Snyder, T. (2005). Six dimensions of parenting: A motivational model. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5(2), 175-235. https://doi.org/10.1207/s153279220502

Tan, C. Y. (2012). Understanding Asian parenting from a Rasch perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 15(4), 273-283. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-839X.2012.01383.x

Tjioe, I. N., & Hildayani, R. (2012). Pengaruh Parental Autonomy Support , Parental Involvement , dan Parental Structure terhadap Domain Kemandirian pada Remaja Penyandang Sindroma Down (The effect of parental autonomy support, parental involvement, and parental structure on Independence among Adolescents with Down Syndrom). (Master Thesis). Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Vermeer, P. (2011). The impact of parental religiosity on parenting goals and parenting style: A Dutch perspective. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 32(1), 69-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617672.2011.549311

Wang, Y. P., Andrade, L. H., & Gorenstein, C. (2005). Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory for a Portuguese-speaking Chinese community in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 38(3), 399-408. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2005000300011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26555/humanitas.v16i2.12488


  • There are currently no refbacks.

HUMANITAS: Indonesian Psychological Journal
ISSN 1693-7236 (print), 2598-6368 (online)
Email : humanitas@psy.uad.ac.id

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

View My Stats