Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass to Synthesize Bio-oil and Chemicals: A Review

Nugroho Dewayanto, Mohd Ridzuan Nordin

Abstract


Increasing of global energy demand and depletion of fossil fuels reserves encourage people to search alternative energy resources. Biomass becomes promising candidate as alternative energy sources since their sustainability. Pyrolysis is one of method to convert biomass into bio-fuel. Almost all of biomass materials can be converted into products by pyrolysis process. However, quality of bio-oil produced by pyrolysis is still considered as low quality, due to their high oxygen content and acidity. This paper provides a critical review of catalytic pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil with better properties. Types of catalysts are discussed in this manuscript, as well as their capability to reduce the oxygen content of product and enhance the properties of bio-oils.

Full Text:

PDF

References


R. Hernandez, “Petroleum displacement potential of next generation biofuels approaching commercialization,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 43–46, Oct. 2011.

P. M. Mortensen, J.-D. Grunwaldt, P. a. Jensen, K. G. Knudsen, and a. D. Jensen, “A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels,” Appl. Catal. A Gen., vol. 407, no. 1–2, pp. 1–19, Nov. 2011.

O. D. Mante, F. a Agblevor, S. T. Oyama, and R. McClung, “The influence of recycling non-condensable gases in the fractional catalytic pyrolysis of biomass.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 111, pp. 482–90, May 2012.

G. Fogassy, N. Thegarid, Y. Schuurman, and C. Mirodatos, “From biomass to bio-gasoline by FCC co-processing: effect of feed composition and catalyst structure on product quality,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 4, no. 12, p. 5068, 2011.

S. D. Stefanidis, K. G. Kalogiannis, E. F. Iliopoulou, A. A. Lappas, and P. A. Pilavachi, “In-situ upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors: catalyst screening on a fixed bed reactor.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 8261–7, Sep. 2011.

A. Aho, A. Tokarev, P. Backman, N. Kumar, K. Eränen, M. Hupa, B. Holmbom, T. Salmi, and D. Y. Murzin, “Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pine Biomass Over H-Beta Zeolite in a Dual-Fluidized Bed Reactor: Effect of Space Velocity on the Yield and Composition of Pyrolysis Products,” Top. Catal., vol. 54, no. 13–15, pp. 941–948, Aug. 2011.

C. Torri, M. Reinikainen, C. Lindfors, D. Fabbri, A. Oasmaa, and E. Kuoppala, “Investigation on catalytic pyrolysis of pine sawdust: Catalyst screening by Py-GC-MIP-AED,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 7–13, May 2010.

M. S. Abu Bakar and J. O. Titiloye, “Catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk for bio-oil production,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 103, pp. 362–368, 2013.

J. Shao, R. Yan, H. Chen, H. Yang, and D. Ho, “Catalytic effect of metal oxides on pyrolysis of sewage sludge,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1113–1118, 2010.

A. Aho, N. Kumar, K. Eränen, T. Salmi, M. Hupa, and D. Y. Murzin, “Catalytic pyrolysis of woody biomass in a fluidized bed reactor: Influence of the zeolite structure,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 2493–2501, Sep. 2008.

S. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, S. Adhikari, R. B. Gupta, M. Tu, and S. Taylor, “Production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass using catalytic pyrolysis under helium and hydrogen environments.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 6742–9, Jun. 2011.

A. Güngör, S. Önenç, S. Uçar, and J. Yanik, “Comparison between the ‘one-step’ and ‘two-step’ catalytic pyrolysis of pine bark,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 97, pp. 39–48, Sep. 2012.

R. French and S. Czernik, “Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for biofuels production,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 25–32, Jan. 2010.

J. Li, X. Li, G. Zhou, W. Wang, C. Wang, S. Komarneni, and Y. Wang, “Applied Catalysis A : General Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass with mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by desilication with NaOH solutions,” "Applied Catal. A, Gen., vol. 470, pp. 115–122, 2014.

M. Misson, R. Haron, M. F. A. Kamaroddin, and N. A. S. Amin, “Pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch for production of chemicals via catalytic pyrolysis.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 2867–73, Jun. 2009.

P. Pan, C. Hu, W. Yang, Y. Li, L. Dong, L. Zhu, D. Tong, R. Qing, and Y. Fan, “The direct pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis sp. residue for renewable bio-oils.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4593–9, Jun. 2010.

B. B. Uzun and N. Sarioğlu, “Rapid and catalytic pyrolysis of corn stalks,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 705–716, May 2009.

H. Zhang, R. Xiao, H. Huang, and G. Xiao, “Comparison of non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of corncob in a fluidized bed reactor.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 1428–34, Feb. 2009.

D. L. Compton, M. A. Jackson, D. J. Mihalcik, C. A. Mullen, and A. A. Boateng, “Catalytic pyrolysis of oak via pyroprobe and bench scale, packed bed pyrolysis reactors,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 174–181, Mar. 2011.

G. Chen, “Catalytic Application to Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fixed Bed Reactor,” Energy Sources, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 223–228, Mar. 2003.

I. Demiral and S. Sensöz, “The effects of different catalysts on the pyrolysis of industrial wastes (olive and hazelnut bagasse).,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 8002–7, Nov. 2008.

S. Yorgun and Y. E. Simşek, “Catalytic pyrolysis of Miscanthus x giganteus over activated alumina.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 8095–100, Nov. 2008.

H. J. Park, H. S. Heo, Y.-K. Park, J.-H. Yim, J.-K. Jeon, J. Park, C. Ryu, and S.-S. Kim, “Clean bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge: effects of reaction conditions and metal oxide catalysts.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 1, pp. S83–5, Jan. 2010.

X. Y. Lim and J. M. Andrésen, “Pyro-catalytic deoxgenated bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch and fronds with boric oxide in a fixed-bed reactor,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 1796–1804, Sep. 2011.

L. Zhou, H. Yang, H. Wu, M. Wang, and D. Cheng, “Catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk by mixing with zinc oxide : Characterization of bio-oil and its rheological behavior,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 106, pp. 385–391, 2013.

M. I. Nokkosmaki, E. T. Kuoppala, E. A. Leppamaki, and A. O. I. Krause, “Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis vapours with zinc oxide,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 55, pp. 119–131, 2000.

I. V. Babich, M. van der Hulst, L. Lefferts, J. . Moulijn, P. O’Connor, and K. Seshan, “Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 3199–3207, Jul. 2011.

M. M. Barbooti, F. K. Matlub, and H. M. Hadi, “Catalytic pyrolysis of Phragmites (reed): Investigation of its potential as a biomass feedstock,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 98, pp. 1–6, Nov. 2012.

P. Rutkowski, “Pyrolysis of cellulose, xylan and lignin with the K2CO3 and ZnCl2 addition for bio-oil production,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 517–522, Mar. 2011.

T. S. Nguyen, M. Zabeti, L. Lefferts, G. Brem, and K. Seshan, “Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using faujasite zeolite catalysts,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 48, pp. 100–110, 2013.

A. V. Bridgwater, “Catalysis in thermal biomass conversion,” Appl. Catal. A Gen., vol. 116, no. 1–2, pp. 5–47, Sep. 1994.

S. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, S. Adhikari, S. A. Chattanathan, and R. B. Gupta, “Catalytic pyrolysis of green algae for hydrocarbon production using H+ZSM-5 catalyst.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 118, pp. 150–7, Aug. 2012.

L. Wang, H. Lei, S. Ren, Q. Bu, J. Liang, Y. Wei, Y. Liu, G.-S. J. Lee, S. Chen, J. Tang, Q. Zhang, and R. Ruan, “Aromatics and phenols from catalytic pyrolysis of Douglas fir pellets in microwave with ZSM-5 as a catalyst,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 98, pp. 194–200, Nov. 2012.

D. A. Bulushev and J. R. H. Ross, “Catalysis for conversion of biomass to fuels via pyrolysis and gasification: A review,” Catal. Today, vol. 171, no. 1, pp. 1–13, Aug. 2011.

A. López, I. De Marco, B. M. Caballero, A. Adrados, and M. F. Laresgoiti, “Deactivation and regeneration of ZSM-5 zeolite in catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes,” Waste Manag., vol. 31, pp. 1852–1858, 2011.

E. F. Iliopoulou, S. D. Stefanidis, K. G. Kalogiannis, A. Delimitis, A. A. Lappas, and K. S. Triantafyllidis, “Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors using transition metal-modified ZSM-5 zeolite,” Appl. Catal. B Environ., vol. 127, pp. 281–290, Oct. 2012.

H. Zhang, Y.-T. Cheng, T. P. Vispute, R. Xiao, and G. W. Huber, “Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio,” Energy Environ. Sci., vol. 4, no. 6, p. 2297, 2011.

P. A. Home and P. T. Williams, “Premium quality fuels and chemicals from the fluidised bed pyrolyisi of biomass with zeolite catalyst upgrading,” Renew. Energy, vol. 5, pp. 810–812, 1994.

P. T. Williams and P. a. Horne, “The influence of catalyst type on the composition of upgraded biomass pyrolysis oils,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 31, pp. 39–61, Feb. 1995.

S. Wang, Y. Zhou, T. Liang, and X. Guo, “Catalytic pyrolysis of mannose as a model compound of hemicellulose over zeolites,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 57, pp. 106–112, 2013.

D. J. Mihalcik, C. a. Mullen, and A. a. Boateng, “Screening acidic zeolites for catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass and its components,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 224–232, Sep. 2011.

A. K. Dalai, E. Sasaoka, H. Hikita, and D. Ferdous, “Catalytic Gasification of Sawdust Derived from Various Biomass,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1456–1463, Nov. 2003.

M. Mahishi and D. Goswami, “An experimental study of hydrogen production by gasification of biomass in the presence of a CO2CO2 sorbent,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 2803–2808, Sep. 2007.

H. Guoxin and H. Hao, “Hydrogen rich fuel gas production by gasification of wet biomass using a CO2 sorbent,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 899–906, May 2009.

Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, S. Sivasangar, and a. Salmiaton, “Enhancement of hydrogen production by secondary metal oxide dopants on NiO/CaO material for catalytic gasification of empty palm fruit bunches,” Energy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 158–165, Nov. 2012.

J. Udomsirichakorn and P. A. Salam, “Review of hydrogen-enriched gas production from steam gasification of biomass: The prospect of CaO-based chemical looping gasification,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 30, pp. 565–579, Feb. 2014.

Y. Lin, C. Zhang, M. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Deoxygenation of Bio-oil during Pyrolysis of Biomass in the Presence of CaO in a Fluidized-Bed Reactor,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 5686–5695, Oct. 2010.

W. Kuan, Y. Huang, C. Chang, and S. Lo, “Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 146, pp. 324–329, 2013.

K. Smets, A. Roukaerts, J. Czech, G. Reggers, S. Schreurs, R. Carleer, and J. Yperman, “Slow catalytic pyrolysis of rapeseed cake: Product yield and characterization of the pyrolysis liquid,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 57, pp. 180–190, 2013.

A. Aho, N. Kumar, K. Eränen, T. Salmi, M. Hupa, and D. Y. Murzin, “Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor,” Process Saf. Environ. Prot., vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 473–480, Jan. 2007.

S. A. Channiwala and P. P. Parikh, “A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid , liquid and gaseous fuels,” Fuel, vol. 81, pp. 1051–1063, 2002.

A. Zheng, Z. Zhao, S. Chang, Z. Huang, H. Wu, X. Wang, F. He, and H. Li, “Journal of Molecular Catalysis A : Chemical Effect of crystal size of ZSM-5 on the aromatic yield and selectivity from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass,” "Journal Mol. Catal. A, Chem., vol. 383–384, pp. 23–30, 2014.

Y. Fan, Y. Cai, X. Li, N. Yu, and H. Yin, “Catalytic upgrading of pyrolytic vapors from the vacuum pyrolysis of rape straw over nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolite in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, May 2014.

N. Ozbay, A. E. Pütün, B. B. Uzun, and E. Pütün, “Biocrude from biomass: pyrolysis of cottonseed cake,” Renew. Energy, vol. 24, pp. 615–625, 2001.

E. Pütün, B. B. Uzun, and A. E. Pütün, “Production of bio-fuels from cottonseed cake by catalytic pyrolysis under steam atmosphere,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 592–598, Jun. 2006.

E. Pütün, “Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass: Effects of pyrolysis temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and MgO catalyst,” Energy, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 2761–2766, Jul. 2010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26555/chemica.v2i1.4566

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 313 times
PDF - 282 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Abstracted/Indexed by:


 
CHEMICA: Jurnal Teknik Kimia
ISSN: 2355-875X (print) 2355-8776(online)
Organized by Chemical Engineering Department - Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Website: http://journal.uad.ac.id/index.php/CHEMICA
Email 1: chemica@che.uad.ac.id
Email 2: agus.aktawan@che.uad.ac.id
 


View CHEMICA stat

Lisensi Creative Commons

This work is licensed under a Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.