Incident and reflected two waves correlation with cancellous bone structure

Muhamad Amin Abd Wahab, Rubita Sudirman, Mohd Azhar Abdul Razak, Fauzan Khairi Che Harun, Nurul Ashikin Abdul Kadir, Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood


The correlation in bone microstructure for ultrasound pulse echo technique is still less accurate compared to through transmission technique. Previous works demonstrated, reflected two modes wave has significant association with bone porosity. The paper aims is to conduct simulation using pulse echo technique to examine the relationship between fast and slow waves with porosity of 2-dimensional cancellous bone models by comparing the result to through transmission technique. The “incident” and “reflected” waves were separated using bandlimited deconvolution method by estimating time threshold of fast and slow waves' transfer function. The parameters of the waves were computed, plotted versus porosity for six different thicknesses and the correlation coefficients between them were compared. The incident and reflected fast wave attenuations show marginally significant correlation with porosity for both bone models orientations. Wave propagation for parallel orientation dominated by incident and reflected fast wave, meanwhile, perpendicular orientation dominated by incident slow wave. The thickness factor affected wave amplitude but less affected the attenuation. Because of propagation loss, reflected wave shows lower correlation to porosity compared to incident wave. Hence, analyzing fast and slow waves might improve the measurement accuracy of pulse echo technique compared to using single mode wave to estimate bone quality.


bandlimited deconvolution; fast and slow wave; pulse echo; through transmission; ultrasound;

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