Psychological Reactance Management via Nonlinear Dynamic Motivation in Classroom and Telecollaborative Second Language Learning Contexts

Akbar Bahari


Drawing on dynamic systems theory, FonF practice model and psychological reactance theory, the present study proposed reinforcing nonlinear dynamic motivation (NDM) as a facilitator to manage psychological reactance in three forms of incivility, dissent, and resistance among classroom and telecollaborative second language (L2) learners and teachers. Given the dynamicity and nonlinearity of motivation which differ from language to language and learner to learner, the current study aimed at exploring the possible impact of NDM on psychological reactance as a source of different behavioral problems in learning context. To find out whether NDM has the potential to prevent/minimize psychological reactance with regard to learner-teacher anxiety, frustration, and self-doubt a mixed methods study was conducted among 275 EFL learners. Implications of the study include the significance of NDM-oriented strategies at managing reactance in three forms of resistance, incivility, and dissent. Methodological triangulation of data from different participants and different contexts with regards to oppositional behavior indicated significant relationship between NDM and managing reactance among language teachers as well as language learners.

Full Text:




Achacoso, M. V. (2002). "What do you mean my grade is not an A?" An investigation of academic entitlement, causal attributions, and self‐regulation in college students. (Ph.D.), The University of Texas at Austin

Bahari, A. (2018a). Nonlinear dynamic motivation-oriented telecollaborative model of language learning via formulaic sequences to foster learner autonomy. The Journal of Teaching English with Technology. 18(3), 65-81.

Bahari, A. (2018b). Developing Listening and Speaking via A Psycho-Socio-Cultural Learning Model Based on Non-Linear Dynamic Motivation. Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literature. 10(2), 35-58.

Bjorklund, W. L., & Rehling, D. L. (2009). Student perceptions of classroom incivility. College Teaching, 58(1), 15–18.

de Bot, K., Lowie, W. & Verspoor, M. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 10 (1), 7–21.

de Bot, K. & Larsen Freeman, L. (2011). Researching second language development from a dynamic systems theory perspective. In M.H. Verspoor, K. de Bot and W. Lowie (eds) A Dynamic Approach to Second Language Development: Methods and Techniques (pp. 5–24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic Press.

Buehl, M. M., & Beck, J. S. (2015). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and teachers’ practices. In H. Fives & M. Gregoire Hill (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs (pp. 66–84). New York, NY: Routledge.

Chang, L. Y. H. (2010). Group processes and EFL learners' motivation: A study of group dynamics in EFL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 44(1), 129-154.

Chartrand, T. L., Dalton, A. N., & Fitzsimons, G. J. (2007). Nonconscious relationship reactance: When significant others prime opposing goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 719–726.

Chowning, K., & Campbell, N. J. (2009). Development and validation of a measure of academic entitlement: Individual differences in students' externalized responsibility and entitled expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 982–997.

Ciani, K. D., Summers, J. J., & Easter, M. A. (2008). Gender differences in academic entitlement among college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169(4), 332-344.

Clark, C. M., & Springer, P. J. (2007). Thoughts on incivility: Student and faculty perceptions of uncivil behavior in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(2), 93–97.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility at the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64–80.

Dillard, J. P., & Shen, L. (2005). On the nature of reactance and its role in persuasive health communication. Communication Monographs, 72, 144-168. doi:10.1080/03637750500111815

Dornyei, Z. (2009). The L2 motivational self-system. In Z. Dornyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9-42). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivation, language attitudes and globalisation: A Hungarian perspective. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of the language learner revisited. New York, NY: Routledge.

Eagly, A. H., Mladinic, A., & Otto, S. (1994). Cognitive and affective bases of attitudes toward social groups and social policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 113-137. doi:10.1006/jesp.1994.1006

Feldmann, L. J. (2001). Classroom civility is another of our instructor responsibilities. College Teaching, 49, 137–140.

Fives, H., & Gill, M. G. (Eds.). (2015). International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fives, H., Lacatena, N., & Gerard, L. (2015).Teachers’ beliefs about teaching (and learning). In H. Fives & M. G. Gill (Eds.), International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs (pp. 249–265). New York, NY: Routledge.

Fong, C. J., Lin, S., & Engle, A. R. (2016). Positioning identity in computer-mediated discourse among ESOL learners. Language Learning & Technology, 20(3), 142–158.

Freiermuth, M. R., & Huang, H. C. (2012). Bringing Japan and Taiwan closer electronically: A look at an intercultural online synchronic chat task and its effect on motivation. Language Teaching Research, 16(1), 61–88. doi:10.1177/1362168811423341

Fusella, P.V. (2013). Dynamic Systems Theory in Cognitive Science: Major Elements, Applications, and Debates Surrounding a Revolutionary Meta-Theory. Dynamical Psychology 2013 – See

Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C., & Wellman, B. (1997). Studying online social networks. Journal of Computer‐mediated Communication, 3(1). doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00062.x

Greenberger, E., Lessard, J., Chen, C., & Farruggia, S. P. (2008). Self‐ entitled college students: Contributions of personality, parenting, and motivational factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(10), 1193–1204.

Griffiths, C. (2013). The strategy factor in successful language learning. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.

Henry, A., Dornyei, Z., & Davydenko, S. (2015). The anatomy of directed motivational currents: Exploring intense and enduring periods of L2 motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 99, 329–345.

Hiver, P. (2015). Attractor states. In Z. Dörnyei, P. MacIntyre and A. Henry (eds) Motivational Dynamics in Language Learning (pp. 20–28). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Jarrell, D., & Freiermuth, M. R. (2005). The motivational power of Internet chat. RELC Journal, 36(1), 59–72. doi:10.1177/0033688205053482

Jiang, Y., & Dewaele, J. M. (2015). What lies bubbling beneath the surface? A longitudinal perspective on fluctuations of ideal and Ought-to L2 self among Chinese learners of English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 53, 331-354.

Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881–919.

Kay, A. C., Gaucher, D., Peach, J. M., Friesen, J., Laurin, K., Zanna, M. P., & Spencer, S. J. (2009). Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to view what is as what should be. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 421–434.

Kikuchi, K. (2009). Listening to our learners' voices: What demotivates Japanese high school students? Language Teaching Research, 13, 453-471.

Kikuchi, K. (2015). Demotivation in Second Language Acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Kim, S., Levine, T., & Allen, M. (2013). Comparing separate process and intertwined models for reactance. Communication Studies, 64, 273-295. doi:10.1080/10510974.2012.755639

Kim, K. J. (2009). Demotivating factors in secondary English education. English Teaching, 64(4), 249-267.

Klimanova, L., & Dembovskaya, S. (2013). L2 identity, discourse, and social networking in Russian. Language Learning & Technology, 17(1), 69–88. Retrieved from

Kramsch, C., A’Ness, F., & Lam, W. S. E. (2000). Authenticity and authorship in the computer-mediated acquisition of L2 literacy. Language Learning & Technology, 4(2), 78–104. Retrieved from

Larsen-Freeman, D. and Cameron, L. (2008). Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Laurin, K., Kay, A.C., Proudfoot, d., & Fitzsimons, G,J. (2013). Response to restrictive policies: Reconciling system justification and psychological reactance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 122, 152–162.

Lippmann, S., Bulanda, R. E., & Wagenaar, T. C. (2009). Student entitlement: Issues and strategies for confronting entitlement in the classroom and beyond. College Teaching, 57(4), 197–204.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Layous, K. (2013). How do simple positive activities increase well-being? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 57–62. doi:10.1177/0963721412469809

MacIntyre, P.D. & Legatto, J.J. (2011). A dynamic system approach to willingness to communicate: Developing and idiodynamic method to capture rapidly changing affect. Applied Linguistics 32 (2), 149–171.

Meunier, L. (1998). Personality and motivational factors in electronic networking. In J. Muyskens (Ed.), New ways of learning and teaching: Focus on technology and foreign language education (pp. 63–126). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Miron, A. M., & Brehm, J. W. (2006). Reactance theory—40 years later. Social Psychology (formerly Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie), 37, 9–18.

Moskovsky, C., Racheva, S., Assulaimani, T., & Harkins, J. (2016). The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A study of Saudi EFL learners. The Modern Language Journal. Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1111/modl.12340

Nutt, C. M. (2013). Stop the madness! College faculty and student perceptions of classroom incivility. Bourbonnais, Illinois: Olivet Nazarene University.

Oxford, R. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Price, H. E. (2012). Principal-teacher interactions: How affective relationships shape principal and teacher attitudes. Education & Educational Research, 48(1), 39–85.

Quick, B. L., & Considine, J. R. (2008). Examining the use of forceful language when designing exercise persuasive messages for adults: A test of conceptualizing reactance arousal as a two-step process. Health Communication, 23, 483-491. doi:10.1080/10410230802342150

Quick, B. L., & Stephenson, M. T. (2007). Further evidence that psychological reactance can be modeled as a combination of anger and negative cognitions. Communication Research, 34, 255-276. doi:10.1177/0093650207300427

Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 655–693. doi:10.1037/a0038648

Rains, S. A. (2013). The nature of psychological reactance revisited: A meta-analytic review. Human Communication Research, 39, 47-73. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2012.01443.x

Rains, S. A., & Turner, M. M. (2007). Psychological reactance and persuasive health communication: A test and extension of the intertwined model. Human Communication Research, 33, 241-269. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2007.00298.x

Rusk, R. D., & Waters, L. (2015). A psycho-social system approach to well-being: Empirically deriving the five domains of positive functioning. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 141–152. doi:10.1080/17439760.2014.920409

Saldaña, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2012). Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Routledge.

Sheldon, K., Boehm, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). Variety is the spice of happiness: The hedonic adaptation prevention (HAP) model. In S. A. David, I. Boniwell, & A. C. Ayers (Eds.), Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 901–914). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Thompson, A. S. (2017). Don't tell me what to do! The anti-ought-to self and language learning motivation, System

Thompson, A. S., & Erdil-Moody, Z. (2016). Operationalizing multilingualism: Language learning motivation in Turkey. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(3), 314-331.

Thompson, A. S., & Vasquez, C. (2015). Exploring motivational profiles through language learning narratives. Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 158-174.

Trang, T. T. T., & Baldauf, R. B. (2007). Demotivation: Understanding resistance to English language learning the case of Vietnamese students. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(1), 79-105.

Urdan, T., & Mestas, M. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2), 354–365.

Ushioda, E. (2013). Christian faith, motivation and L2 learning: Personal, social and research perspectives. In M. S. Wong, C. Kristjansson, & Z. Dörnyei (Eds.), Christian faith and English language teaching and learning: Research on the interrelationship of religion and ELT (pp. 223–229). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Ushioda, E., & Dornyei, Z. (2017). Beyond Global English: Motivation to Learn Languages in a Multicultural World: Introduction to the Special Issue. The Modern Language Journal, 101, 3. DOI: 10.1111/modl.12407

Warschauer, M., Turbee, L., & Roberts, B. (1996). Computer learning networks and student empowerment. System, 24(1), 1–14. doi:10.1016/0346-251X(95)00049-P

Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1995). Dimensions of children’s motivations for reading: An initial study (Research Rep. No. 34). Athens, GA: National Reading Research Center.

Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J.T. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 420-432.

Wortman, C. B., & Brehm, J. W. (1975). Responses to uncontrollable outcomes: An integration of reactance theory and the learned helplessness model. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 236–277). New York, NY: Academic Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Program Pascasarjana Magister Psikologi
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta
Penerbit UAD Press

ISSN Printed 2088-3129 ISSN Online 2460 8467

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats