The development of Moringa leaves effervescent granules with effervescent agent of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate

Karina Citra Rani, Nani Parfati, Nikmatul Ikhrom Ekajayani, I Made Abdi Kurniawan, Ni Putu Wangi Kristiani

Abstract


Moringa leaves are part of Moringa Oleifera, which have a high antioxidant content, therefore, it is beneficial for overcoming free radicals in the body. Furthermore, the leaves contents have the potential to be developed into a functional drink in the form of effervescent granules. The important aspects influencing the physical characteristics, stability, and acceptability of granule is the type and ratio of the effervescent agent. In this study, citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were used as effervescent agents because they both provide acceptable texture and mouthfeel. This study aimed to develop an effervescent granule formula of Moringa leaves and to optimize the molar ratio of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate as the effervescent agent. Three molar ratios of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were optimized, namely 1:3.11 (Formulation 1), 1:3 (Formulation 2), and 1:2.93 (Formulation 3). These formulations were developed using the wet granulation method. The results showed effervescent granules of the three formulations exhibited good flowability and uniform particle size distribution. Furthermore, formulation 3 showed better granule flow characteristics than the others. The results after reconstitution showed the granules were quickly dispersed within 207-234 secs, the pH of the preparation ranged between 5.74-5.92 (neutral pH), the viscosity was between 326-333 cps, and exhibited dilatant flow characteristics. Also, the organoleptic and sensory evaluation results showed formulation 3 was the most acceptable in terms of color, taste, aroma, and texture. Based on these findings, it was concluded that formulation 3 which used (citric acid ratio, sodium bicarbonate 1:2.93) was the optimal formulation.


Keywords


Moringa leaves; effervescent; granules; citric acid; sodium bicarbonate

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References


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Ali, Muhammad Azhar, Yusof, Y. A., Chin, N. L., & Ibrahim, M. N. (2018). Development and standardization of Moringa oleifera leaves as a natural dietary supplement. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 0(0), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2018.1429517

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Aslani, A., & Fattahi, F. (2013). Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of potassium citrate effervescent tablets. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3(1), 217–225. https://doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.036

Aslani, A., & Jahangiri, H. (2013). Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of ranitidine effervescent tablets. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3(2), 315–322. https://doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.051

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Herlina, Kuswardhani, N., Belgis, M., & Tiara, A. (2020). Characterization of physical and chemical properties of effervescent tablets Temulawak (Curcuma zanthorrhiza) in the various proportion of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid. E3S Web of Conferences, 142. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202014203006

Husni, P., Baitariza, A., & Fathurohman, D. (2017). Formulation of Nano Curcuminoid effervescent tablet. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences, 8(S), 179–184

Jassim, Z. E., Rajab, N. A., & Mohammed, N. H. (2018). Study the effect of wet granulation and fusion methods on preparation, characterization, and release of lornoxicam sachet effervescent granules. Drug Invention Today, 10(9), 1612–1616

Jung, H., Lee, Y. J., & Yoon, W. B. (2018). Effect of moisture content on the grinding process and powder properties in food: A review. Processes, 6(6), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6060069

Khandelwal, P., & Shah, P. (2016). Formulation and evaluation of oral herbal granules for asthma. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, 7(10), 382–389. http://www.ijpsr.info/docs/IJPSR16-07-10-011.pdf

Murphy, E. G., Regost, N. E., Roos, Y. H., & Fenelon, M. A. (2020). Powder and reconstituted properties of commercial infant and follow-on formulas. Foods, 9(1), 1–17.https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010084

Mutahar, R. K. M., Nagesh, C., Ramesh, R., & Omer, S. (2008). Formulation , development and in vitro evaluation of effervescent tablets of niacin for dyslipidemia. 1(1), 107–114

Nambiar, V. S., & Parnami, S. (2008). Standardization and organoleptic evaluation of drumstick ( Moringa oleifera ) leaves incorporated into traditional indian recipes. Trees for Life Journal, 3(September), 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01990.x

Noval, N., Rosyifa, R., & Annisa, A. (2020). Effect of HPMC concentration variation as gelling agent on physical stability of formulation gel ethanol extract bundung plants (Actinuscirpus Grossus). https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-11-2019.2298326

Okoye, E. I., Awotunde, T. O., & Morales, T. G. (2013). Formulation and characterization of Moringa oleifera leaf granules. I: Micromeritic properties. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 6(1), 66–74

Olabode, Z., Akanbi, C. T., Olunlade, B., & Adeola, A. A. (2015). Effects of drying temperature on the nutrients of Moringa (Moringa oleifera). Direct Research Journal of Agricultural and Food Science (DRJAFS), 3(5), 117–122

Pandey, P., Sharma, P., Gupta, R., Garg, A., Shukla, A., Nema, N., & Pasi, A. (2013). Formulation and evaluation of herbal effervescent granules incorporated with martynia annua extract. Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics, 1(5), 54–57

Rahmawati, P. S., & Adi, A. C. (2017). Daya terima dan zat gizi permen jeli dengan penambahan bubuk daun kelor (Moringa Oleifera). Media Gizi Indonesia, 11(1), 86. https://doi.org/10.20473/mgi.v11i1.86-93

Rezaei, F., & vander Gheynst, J. S. (2010). Critical moisture content for microbial growth in dried food-processing residues. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(12), 2000–2005. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4044

Sandrasari, D. A., & Zaenal Abidin. (2006). Determination of the concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. J. Tek. Ind. Pert , 21(42), 113–117

Santl, M., ILIc, I., Vrecer, F., & Baumgartner, S. (2012). A compressibility and compactibility study of real tableting mixtures: The effect of granule particle size. Acta Pharmaceutica, 62(3), 325–340. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10007-012-0028-8

Sanzida, N. (2018). Determination of optimum drying temperature profile by iterative learning control (ILC) method to obtain a desired moisture content in tablets. Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 20(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.3329/cerb.v20i1.36923

Saw, H. Y., Davies, C. E., Paterson, A. H. J., & Jones, J. R. (2015). Correlation between powder flow properties measured by shear testing and Hausner ratio. Procedia Engineering, 102(December), 218–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.01.132

Sengev, A. I., Abu, J. O., & Gernah, D. I. (2013). Effect of <i>Moringa oleifera</i> Leaf Powder Supplementation on Some Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 04(03), 270–275. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.43036

Shah, R. B., Tawakkul, M. A., & Khan, M. A. (2008). Comparative evaluation of flow for pharmaceutical powders and granules. AAPS PharmSciTech, 9(1), 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9046-8

Singh, P., & Singh, S. (2014). Processing of Moringa oleifera Leaves for Human Consumption. 2(December), 28–31. www.bepls.com

Suganthi, M., Balamohan, T. N., Beaulah, A., & Vellaikumar, S. (2019). Extending the shelf life of Moringa leaves through packaging and cold storage. Ijcs, 7(3), 483–486

Sun, H., Wang, X., Wang, J., Shi, G., & Chen, L. (2020). Influence of the formula on the properties of a fast dispersible fruit tablet made from mango, Chlorella, and cactus powder. Food Science and Nutrition, 8(1), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1330

Taymouri, S., Mostafavi, A., & Javanmardi, M. (2019). Formulation and optimization of effervescent tablet containing bismuth sub-citrate. Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2), 236–244. https://doi.org/10.4103/jrptps.JRPTPS_11_19

Thoke, S. B., Sharma, Y. P., Rawat, S. S., & Nangude, S. L. (2013). Formulation Development & Evaluation of Effervescent Tablet of Alendronate Sodium With Vitamin D3. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 3(5), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v3i5.623

Van den Ban, S., & Goodwin, D. J. (2017). The Impact of Granule Density on Tabletting and Pharmaceutical Product Performance. Pharmaceutical Research, 34(5), 1002–1011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-017-2115-5

Wagoner, T. B., Çakır-Fuller, E., Shingleton, R., Drake, M. A., & Foegeding, E. A. (2020). Viscosity drives texture perception of protein beverages more than hydrocolloid type. Journal of Texture Studies, 51(1), 78–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12471

Ali, M. A., Yusof, Y. A., Chin, N. L., & Ibrahim, M. N. (2017). Processing of Moringa leaves as natural source of nutrients by optimization of drying and grinding mechanism. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(6). https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12583

Ali, Muhammad Azhar, Yusof, Y. A., Chin, N. L., & Ibrahim, M. N. (2018). Development and standardization of Moringa oleifera leaves as a natural dietary supplement. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 0(0), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2018.1429517

Allen, L. V, & Ansel, H. C. (2014). Ansel’s Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. In Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (Vol. 53, Issue 9). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Andarini, F., Yasni, S., & Syamsir, E. (2018). Pengembangan minuman fungsional dari ekstrak kulit mundar. Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan, 29(1), 49–57. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2018.29.1.49

Arabshahi-D, S., Vishalakshi Devi, D., & Urooj, A. (2007). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their heat, pH and storage stability. Food Chemistry, 100(3), 1100–1105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.014

Aslani, A., & Fattahi, F. (2013). Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of potassium citrate effervescent tablets. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3(1), 217–225. https://doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.036

Aslani, A., & Jahangiri, H. (2013). Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of ranitidine effervescent tablets. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 3(2), 315–322. https://doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.051

Augsburger, L. L., & Hoag, S. W. (2008). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Tablets. In Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets (Vol. 2, p. 570). https://doi.org/10.3109/9781420020298

Augsburger, L. L., & Hoag, S. W. (2008b). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms - Tablets. In Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets (Vol. 2). https://doi.org/10.3109/9781420020298

Budi, A., Lestari, S., & Desihapsari, B. N. (2011). Optimasi rasio asam tartrat-natrium bikarbonat dalam granul effervescent ekstrak teh hijau secara granulasi kering ( the optimization ratio of tartaric acid-sodium bicarbonate on the green tea extract effervescent granule by dry granulation method ). Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 9(2), 136–142

Chinwe, I., Jose, S. M., Jaramillo, J., & Fausto, D. (2015). Phytochemical and nutritional properties of dried leaf powder of Moringa oleifera lam . From machala el oro province of ecuador. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 5(2),8-16

Clement, A., Olatunde, M., Patrick, O., & Joyce, O. (2017). Effect of drying temperature on nutritional content of Moringa oleifera leave. World Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1(311), 93–96. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjfst.20170103.11

Crouter, A., & Briens, L. (2013). The effect of moisture on the flowability of pharmaceutical excipients. AAPS PharmSciTech, 15(1), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-013-0036-0

da Cunha-Filho, M. S. S., Gustmann, P. C., Garcia, F. S., Lima, E. M., & de Sá-Barreto, L. C. L. (2014). Development and physical evaluation of Maytenus ilicifolia effervescent granules using factorial design. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 50(2), 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502014000200002

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2008). Farmakope Hebal Indonesia. Farmakope Herbal Indonesia

Dewi, R., Iskandarsyah, I., & Octarina, D. (2014). Tablet effervescent ekstrak Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) dengan variasi kadar pemanis aspartam. Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 1(2), 116–133. https://doi.org/10.7454/psr.v1i2.3492

Giyatmi, & Lingga, D. K. (2019). The effect of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate concentration on the quality of effervescent of red ginger extract. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 383(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/383/1/012022

Gopalakrishnan, L., Doriya, K., & Kumar, D. S. (2016). Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(2), 49–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2016.04.001

Grajang, I. B., & Wahyuningsih, I. (2019). Formulation of Sechium edule Extract Effervescent Granule with the Variation of Citric Acid, Tartrate Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate. 54–60. https://doi.org/10.5220/0008239300540060

Herlina, Kuswardhani, N., Belgis, M., & Tiara, A. (2020). Characterization of physical and chemical properties of effervescent tablets Temulawak (Curcuma zanthorrhiza) in the various proportion of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid. E3S Web of Conferences, 142. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202014203006

Husni, P., Baitariza, A., & Fathurohman, D. (2017). Formulation of Nano Curcuminoid effervescent tablet. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences, 8(S), 179–184

Jassim, Z. E., Rajab, N. A., & Mohammed, N. H. (2018). Study the effect of wet granulation and fusion methods on preparation, characterization, and release of lornoxicam sachet effervescent granules. Drug Invention Today, 10(9), 1612–1616

Jung, H., Lee, Y. J., & Yoon, W. B. (2018). Effect of moisture content on the grinding process and powder properties in food: A review. Processes, 6(6), 6–10. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6060069

Khandelwal, P., & Shah, P. (2016). Formulation and evaluation of oral herbal granules for asthma. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research, 7(10), 382–389. http://www.ijpsr.info/docs/IJPSR16-07-10-011.pdf

Murphy, E. G., Regost, N. E., Roos, Y. H., & Fenelon, M. A. (2020). Powder and reconstituted properties of commercial infant and follow-on formulas. Foods, 9(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010084

Mutahar, R. K. M., Nagesh, C., Ramesh, R., & Omer, S. (2008). Formulation , development and in vitro evaluation of effervescent tablets of niacin for dyslipidemia. 1(1), 107–114

Nambiar, V. S., & Parnami, S. (2008). Standardization and organoleptic evaluation of drumstick ( Moringa oleifera ) leaves incorporated into traditional indian recipes. Trees for Life Journal, 3(September), 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01990.x

Noval, N., Rosyifa, R., & Annisa, A. (2020). Effect of HPMC concentration variation as gelling agent on physical stability of formulation gel ethanol extract bundung plants (Actinuscirpus Grossus). https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-11-2019.2298326

Okoye, E. I., Awotunde, T. O., & Morales, T. G. (2013). Formulation and characterization of Moringa oleifera leaf granules. I: Micromeritic properties. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 6(1), 66–74

Olabode, Z., Akanbi, C. T., Olunlade, B., & Adeola, A. A. (2015). Effects of drying temperature on the nutrients of Moringa (Moringa oleifera). Direct Research Journal of Agricultural and Food Science (DRJAFS), 3(5), 117–122

Pandey, P., Sharma, P., Gupta, R., Garg, A., Shukla, A., Nema, N., & Pasi, A. (2013). Formulation and evaluation of herbal effervescent granules incorporated with martynia annua extract. Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics, 1(5), 54–57

Rahmawati, P. S., & Adi, A. C. (2017). Daya terima dan zat gizi permen jeli dengan penambahan bubuk daun kelor (Moringa Oleifera). Media Gizi Indonesia, 11(1), 86. https://doi.org/10.20473/mgi.v11i1.86-93

Rezaei, F., & vander Gheynst, J. S. (2010). Critical moisture content for microbial growth in dried food-processing residues. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(12), 2000–2005. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4044

Sandrasari, D. A., & Zaenal Abidin. (2006). Determination of the concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. J. Tek. Ind. Pert , 21(42), 113–117

Santl, M., ILIc, I., Vrecer, F., & Baumgartner, S. (2012). A compressibility and compactibility study of real tableting mixtures: The effect of granule particle size. Acta Pharmaceutica, 62(3), 325–340. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10007-012-0028-8

Sanzida, N. (2018). Determination of optimum drying temperature profile by iterative learning control (ILC) method to obtain a desired moisture content in tablets. Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin, 20(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.3329/cerb.v20i1.36923

Saw, H. Y., Davies, C. E., Paterson, A. H. J., & Jones, J. R. (2015). Correlation between powder flow properties measured by shear testing and Hausner ratio. Procedia Engineering, 102(December), 218–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.01.132

Sengev, A. I., Abu, J. O., & Gernah, D. I. (2013). Effect of <i>Moringa oleifera</i> Leaf Powder Supplementation on Some Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 04(03), 270–275. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.43036

Shah, R. B., Tawakkul, M. A., & Khan, M. A. (2008). Comparative evaluation of flow for pharmaceutical powders and granules. AAPS PharmSciTech, 9(1), 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-008-9046-8

Singh, P., & Singh, S. (2014). Processing of Moringa oleifera Leaves for Human Consumption. 2(December), 28–31. www.bepls.com

Suganthi, M., Balamohan, T. N., Beaulah, A., & Vellaikumar, S. (2019). Extending the shelf life of Moringa leaves through packaging and cold storage. Ijcs, 7(3), 483–486

Sun, H., Wang, X., Wang, J., Shi, G., & Chen, L. (2020). Influence of the formula on the properties of a fast dispersible fruit tablet made from mango, Chlorella, and cactus powder. Food Science and Nutrition, 8(1), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1330

Taymouri, S., Mostafavi, A., & Javanmardi, M. (2019). Formulation and optimization of effervescent tablet containing bismuth sub-citrate. Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2), 236–244. https://doi.org/10.4103/jrptps.JRPTPS_11_19

Thoke, S. B., Sharma, Y. P., Rawat, S. S., & Nangude, S. L. (2013). Formulation Development & Evaluation of Effervescent Tablet of Alendronate Sodium With Vitamin D3. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 3(5), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v3i5.623

Van den Ban, S., & Goodwin, D. J. (2017). The Impact of Granule Density on Tabletting and Pharmaceutical Product Performance. Pharmaceutical Research, 34(5), 1002–1011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-017-2115-5

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/pharmaciana.v11i2.20873

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