Improving Third Grade Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using Time Bar Media

Wahyu Purwaningsih, Ali Mustadi, Danuri Danuri


This study aims to improve the students’ critical thinking skills using time bar media in mathematics learning of Grade IIIA of SD Negeri 1 Kotagede – an elementary school in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It used classroom action research design by Kemmis and McTaggart. The data were collected through observation, written tests, and interviews. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results showed that the use of time bar media in mathematics learning could improve students' critical thinking skills. The critical thinking skills covered: (1) providing simple explanations, (2) building basic skills, (3) concluding, (4) providing further explanations, and (5) arranging strategies and tactics. The increase in students' critical thinking skills was seen based on the test results in the pre-action (43%) which increased to 80% in the first cycle and increased to 90% in the second cycle.


Critical thinking skill; Elementary school mathematics; Time bar media

Full Text:



Abdo, M., & Semela, T. (2010). Teachers of poor communities: The tale of instructional media use in primary schools of Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(7), 78-92.

Adekola, G. (2010). The Impact of Instructional Media on the Education of Youths on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria Urban Communities. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 3(June), 64-72.

AECT. (n.d.). Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Retrieved from

Ahonen, A. K., & Kinnunen, P. (2014). How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-first Century Skills? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, (May 2015), 37-41.

Arends, R. I., & Kilcher, A. (2010). Teaching for Student Learning Becoming An Accomplished Teacher. Madison Aveneu: Routladge Taylor and Francis Group.

Arikunto, S. (2005). Manajemen Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Becker, K. (2006). Pedagogy in commercial video games. Games and Simulations in Online Learning: Research and Development Frameworks, 2006, 21-47.

Buckingham, D. (2008). Youth, Media, Identity.

Courville, K. (2011). Technology and Its Use in Education: Present Roles and Future Prospects. Online Submission, 1-19.

Dixon, P. A. (2017). Extensive Listening , Teacher Proficiency and 21 st Century Skills: Interview with Dr Willy A. Renandya. RELC Journal.

Dunn, D. S., Beins, B. C., McCarthy, M. A., & Hill, G. W. (2010). Best Practices for Teaching Beginnings and Endings in the Psychology Major. New York: Oxford University Press.

Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.

Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2012). Strategies for Teachers: Teaching Content and Thinking Skills. In NASSP Bulletin (6th ed., Vol. 72).

Eryilmaz, S. (2015). E-Learning as a Teaching Strategy Actively Used in FATIH Project. European Journal of Educational Research, 4(1), 38-47.

Facione, P. a. (2011). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. In Insight assessment. Retrieved from

Faiz, F. (2012). Thinking Skill Pengantar Menuju Berpikir Kritis. Yogyakarta: SUKA Pres UIN Kalijaga.

Farindhani, D. A., & Wangid, M. N. (2019). Scientific-based pictorial storybook with project-based learning method for improving the critical thinking skills of elementary school students. Jurnal Prima Edukasia, 7(1), 94-105.

Gambrill, E., & Gibbs, L. (2009). Critical Thinking for Helping Professionals A Skolls Based Workbook. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gee, J. P. (2008). Learning and Games. The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. The Mit Press, 21-40.

Hendriana, H., Setiawan, W., & Aripin, U. (2020). The Effectiveness of Geogebra Metacognitive Guidance to Develop Critical Thinking Skills. International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education, 3(2), 129.

Heo, J. (2012). The Effect of Using Three Types of Instructional Media on Comprehension and Motivation of Korean College Students in an Online Course. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 163.

Ingwarni, S. (2018). Jurnal Prima Edukasia , 6 ( 2 ), 2018 , 157-165 Developing the Sociocultural-Based Thematic-Integrative Learning Module for Improving the Learning Motivation and the Critical Thinking. 6(2), 157-165.

Johnson, E. . (2014). Contextual Teaching Learning: Menjadikan Kegiatan Belajar Mengajar Mengasyikkan dan Bermakna. Bandung: Kaifa.

Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Nixon, R. (2014). The Action Research Planner. Singapore: Springer.

Kenneth, D. M. (2014). Effective instructional strategies from theory to practice. Retrieved from

McPeck, J. (1981). Critical Thinking And Education. New York: St. Martins.

Moore, B.R. & Parker, R. (2009). Critical Thinking (9th ed.). California: McGraw-Hill.

Newby, T. J., Stepich, D. A., Lehman, J. D., Russell, J. D., & Leftwich, A. O. (2011). Educational technology for teaching and learning. Upper saddle river: Perason Education, Inc.

Nitko, A. J. & Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Educational Assessment of Students. Bostom: Pearson Education.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. In Performance + Instruction (Vol. 34).

Permendikbud Nomor 22 tahun 2016.

Peter, E. E. (2012). Critical thinking: Essence for teaching mathematics and mathematics problem solving skills. African Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science Research, 5(3), 39-43.

Putra, P. D. A., & Sudarti. (2015). Pengembangan Sistem E-Learning untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Mahasiswa Pendidikan Fisika (Halaman 45 s.d. 48). Jurnal Fisika Indonesia, 19(55), 45-48.

Rasiman. (2012). Penelusuran Proses Berpikir Kritis Dalam Menyelesaikan Masalah Matematika Bagi Siswa Dengan Kemampuan Matematika Tinggi. Jurnal Pendidikan, Vol. 3(1), 12.

Reigeluth, C. M., & Chellman, A. A. (2018). instructional Design Theories and Models: Buliding a Common Knowledge Base. In Sereal Untuk (Vol. 51). New Jersey: Taylor & Francis Publisher.

Salvia, I. M., Mashudi, & Sulistyarini. (2015). Penerapan Metode Problem Solving dalam Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Siswa Mata Pelajaran Ekonomi. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran, 4(3), 1-16.

Sapriya. (2015). Pendidikan IPS. Bandung: Rosdakarya.

Scoot Sophia. (2008). Perceptions of Students Learning Critical Thinking through Debate in a Technology Classroom: A Case Study. The Journal of Technology Studies, 34(1).

Shamir, A., Zion, M., & Levy, O. S. (2008). Peer tutoring, metacognitive processes and multimedia problem-based learning: The effect of mediation training on critical thinking. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(4), 384-398.

Shihab, M. Q. (2010). Membumikan Al-Quran, Fungsi, dan Peran Wahyu dalam Masyarakat. Bandung: Mizan Media Utama.

Smaldino, S. E., Lowther, D. L., & Mims, C. (2019). Instructional technology and media for learning. In Revista mexicana de investigacion educativa (12th ed., Vol. 15). United States of America: Pearson.

Stephen, P. R., & Jugje, T. A. (2017). Organizational behavior (17th ed.). England: Perason Education Limited.

Welch, K. C. . (2015). A systemic approach to teaching critical thinking skills to electrical and computer engineering undergraduates. american Journal of Engineering Education. American Journal of Engineering Education, 6, 113-123.

Widodo, T. (2009). Fisika untuk SMA/ MA Kelas X. Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan Dapartemen Nasional.

Wilson, Suzanne. M. Peterson, P. L. (2006). Theories of Learning and Teaching What Do They Mean for Educators? National Education Association. USA: Wahington, DC.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Wahyu Purwaningsih, Ali Mustadi, Danuri Danuri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education
Kampus 2 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Jalan Pramuka No. 42, Pandeyan, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta - 55161
Telp. (0274) 563515, ext. 4902; Fax. (0274) 564604

p-ISSN: 2549-4996 | e-ISSN: 2548-5806

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View IJEME's Stats