Implementing the Flipped Classroom Model in the Teaching of History

Siti Waznah Abdul Latif, Rohani Matzin, Rosmawijah Jawawi, Mar Aswandi Mahadi, Jainatul Halida Jaidin, Lawrence Mundia, Masitah Shahrill


This study investigated the effectiveness in implementing the Flipped Classroom model in teaching History and to identify the students’ perceptions using this approach towards their learning. The chosen History topic was on ‘James Brooke’s activities in Sarawak in the 1840s’. The sample consisted of twelve students from two Year 9 classes in one of the secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam. In adopting the Flipped Classroom approach, the students were required to watch a video lesson outside the classroom setting. To measure its effectiveness, a test instrument was used, and five students were interviewed. The findings revealed that the utilisation of this instructional method was effective in teaching History, as there were improvements in the students’ test results. The analyses of the students’ perceptions using this approach revealed that while some students believed that it helped them improve in their communication and writing skills, others did not perceive it effective for their learning.


Flipped Classroom, Effectiveness, Learning process, History


Bergman, J. (2011). History of the flipped class: How the flipped class was born. Retrieved from

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012a). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Eugene, OR: Inter- national Society for Technology in Education; Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012b). How the flipped classroom is radically transforming learning. The Daily Riff. Retrieved from

Bishop, J. L., & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The flipped classroom: A survey of research. 120th ASEE annual conference and exposition. Retrieved from

Colborn, N.W. (2012). My Experiment with the flipped classroom model. LOEX Quarterly, 39(3), 8-10.

Day, J. A., & Foley, J. D. (2006). Evaluating a web lecture intervention in a human–computer interaction course. IEEE Transactions on Education, 49(4), 420-431.

Franciszkowicz, M. (2008). Video-based additional instruction. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 4(2), 5-14.

Fritzky, J. (2013). Before and after the flipped class. Retrieved from

Green, G. (2011). Taking a Risk on At-Risk Kids. Retrieved from

Green, G. (2012). My view: Flipped classrooms give every student a chance to succeed. Retrieved from succeed/

Idris, S. H., Jawawi, R., Mahadi, M. A., Matzin, R., Shahrill, M., Jaidin, J. H., Petra, N. A., & Mundia, L. (2017). The use of rubrics in developing students’ understanding of history. Advanced Science Letters, 23(2), 901-904.

Jaidin, J. H., Shahrill, M., & Jawawi, R. (2014). Teacher education in Brunei Darussalam: Transforming tomorrow’s generation through teacher education today. Paper presented at the International Seminar on “Education Transformation Toward Excellent Quality Based on ASEAN Community Characteristics”, Faculty of Tarbiya and Teacher Training Islamic State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 13 November 2014.

Jawawi, R. (2010). Reflective practice in teaching economics and commerce: A case study of pre-service teachers in Brunei Darussalam. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.

Johnson, L. W., & Renner, J. D. (2012). Effect of the flipped classroom model on a secondary computer applications course: Student and teacher perceptions, questions and student achievement (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Lage, M., Platt, G., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43.

Mahadi, M. A., & Shahrill, M. (2014). Identifying the issues from history textbooks research. In F. Uslu (Ed.), Abstracts and Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (pp. 904-911). Istanbul, Turkey: International Organization Center of Academic Research, OCERINT.

Manjanai, S. N. N. P., & Shahrill, M. (2016). Introducing the flipped classroom strategy in the learning of year nine factorization. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Studies, 11(4), 35-55.

Nawi, N., Jawawi, R., Matzin, R., Jaidin, J. H., Shahrill, M., & Mundia, L. (2015). To flip or not to flip: The challenges and benefits of using flipped classroom in geography lessons in Brunei Darussalam. Review of European Studies, 7(12), 133-145.

November, A., & Mull, B. (2012). Flipped learning: A response to five common Criticisms. Retrieved from

Rea, S. (2015). Researchers find everyone has a blind spot: Believing you’re less biased than your peers has detrimental consequences. Retrieved from

Reason, P., & Bradbury, H. (2001). Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.). Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage Publications.

Shahrill, M., Wood, K., & Morsidi, N. M. H. (2015). The teaching and learning of mathematics practices in the 21st century: Empowering the need to change. Regular Lecture (Invitation) presented at the 7th ICMI-East Asia Regional Conference on Mathematics Education (EARCOME 7), “In Pursuit of Quality Mathematics Education for All”, Cebu City, Philippines, 11-15 May 2015.

Shimamoto, D. N. (2013). Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module. Retrieved from

Strayer, J. F. (2008). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, United States.

The Teaching Center (2013). Increase Students’ participations. Retrieved from participation.aspx#.VaFvtF-qqko

Wood, K., Sithamparam, S., Jawawi, R., Shahrill, M., Jaidin, J. H., Perera, J. H. & Salleh. S. M. (2015). Teacher action research to develop 21st-century teaching practices and learning outcomes in Brunei. Part of the symposium presentation “Promoting Equitable Access to 21st-Century Skills: Global and Local Designs for Professional Learning”, presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (AERA), “Toward Justice: Culture, Language and Heritage in Education Research and Praxis”, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Wood, K., Jaidin, J. H., Jawawi, R., Perera, J. S. H. Q., Salleh, S. M., Shahrill, M., & Sithamparam, S. (2017). How and what teachers learn from collaborative professional development. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 6(2), 151-168.

Zhao, Y., & Ho, A. D. (2014). Evaluating the flipped classroom in an undergraduate history course. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
ISSN: 2089-9823, e-ISSN 2302-9277
Published by: Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (UAD) in collaboration with Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES)

View EduLearn Stats