A Development K(plus one)ARDS Modular Model to Improve Non-English Department English Teachers’ Competences in a Higher Education

Fransisca Endang Lestariningsih


There are two types of English teachers in a higher education, English teachers who have English Language Teaching (ELT) background and those who do not have it. It brings about some problems in the teaching instruction and the achievement of the students, as well. This is a theoretical views used as a preliminary study to develop the model to improve English teachers‟ competences in a higher education. A modular model proposed by Kumaravadivelu, with his KARDS model seems appropriate to be applied for the English teachers who are assigned to teach higher education students. This model is at first intended for the prospective teachers of L2 (TESOL), but with some modifications, it can be used to improve the competences of English in-service English teachers.


English Education Training


Borg, W. G. and Gall, M.D. (1983). Educational research: An introduction. Fourth edition. Boston : Pearson.

Basturkmen, H. (2010). Developing courses for English for Specific Purposes. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. Fifth Edition. New York: Pearson.

Burns, A. (2010). Doing action research in English Language Teaching. New York: Routledge.

Cowan, M.A. (2008). Beyond single interest: Broad-based organizing as a vehicle for promoting adult literacy. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 6. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Fatihi, A.R. (2003). The role of need analysis in ESL Program design. South Asian Language Review. 13 (1 & 2). 39-59. Retrieved from http://ssalr.net?documents/fatihi.pdf in September 2015.

Gillett, A. J. (2011). What is EAP? Retrieved from http://www.uefap.com/bgnd/ on May 2015.

Hamp-Lyons, L. (2011). English for Academic Purposes. Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Volume II. In E. Hinke (Ed.). New York: Rotledge.

Hyland, K. (2006). English for academic purposes: An advanced resource book. New York: Routledge.

Jordan, R.R. (1997). English for Academic Purposes: a guide and resource books for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Knowles, M. (2005). The adult learner. Sixth Edition. Burlington, M.A.: Elsevier Inc.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Language teacher education for a global society. New York: Routledge.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Individual identity, cultural globalization, and teaching English as an international language: the case for an epistemic break. Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language. (eds. Lubna Alsagoff, et.el.). New York: Routledge.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: macro-strategies for language teaching. United States of America: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2001). Toward a postmethod pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 35(4), 537-560.

McKay, S.L. (2012). Principle of teaching English as an international language. Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language. (eds. Lubna Alsagoff, et.el.). New York: Routledge.

Nation, I.S.P & Macalister J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge.

Richey, R. C. & Klein, J. D. (2007). Design and development research. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J. C. (1998). Beyond training: Perspectives on language teacher education. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. (2002). Approach and methods in language teaching. Second Edition. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J.C. & Lockhart, C. (2007). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schutz, N. (2013). How specific is English for Academic Purposes? A look at verbs in business, linguistics and medical research articles. Language & Computers. 77. 1. 237-257

Stern, H.H., (1991), Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tennant, M. (2006). Psychology and adult learning. Third edition. New York: Routledge.

Wingate, U. & Tribble, C. (June 2012). The best of both worlds? Towards an English for Academic Purposes/Academic Literacies writing pedagogy. Studies in Higher Education. 37.4. 481 – 495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2010.525630

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v12i2.6210


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
ISSN: 2089-9823, e-ISSN 2302-9277
Published by: Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (UAD) in collaboration with Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES)

View EduLearn Stats