Module Based on Pedagogical Content Knowledge to Increase the Engagement and Skills of the Future Teachers in Designing a Lesson Plan

Ika Maryani, Sri Tutur Martaningsih, Caraka Putra Bhakti


Lesson plans is the most important component in preparing a quality learning. Teachers’ low understanding on pedagogical content knowledge affects their skills in designing learning. It needs serious effort to equip future teachers with pedagogical content knowledge to produce professional teachers. The aim of this study is to increase the engagement and skills of future teachers in designing lesson plans using module based on pedagogical content knowledge. College-students engagement indicators are adopted from Students Engagement Instrument (SEI)-Appleton, Christenson, Kim, and Reschly, consisting of affective and cognitive engagement. The skill in question are the ability to writing the subject’s identity, writing competencies, formulating indicators, compiling teaching materials, designing media, choosing learning method, compiling learning scenarios, as well as designing assessment. This research is a classroom action research that is designed in two cycles of learning with the number of respondents is 73 college-students. Each learning cycle is consisting of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The data collection techniques was self-report, observation, portfolios, interviews, field notes, and study documentation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data, whereas qualitative data were analysed by qualitative analysis of Miles & Hubberman model. The results showed that the PCK-based module is able to increase college-students engagement and ability in designing a lesson plan.


Module, Pedagogical Content knowledge, Students engagement, Lesson Plan

Full Text:



Addison, S., Wright, A., & Rachel, M. (2009). Using clickers to improve student engagement and performance in an introductory biochemistry class. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 37(2), 84–91.

Akhyak, M. Idrus, & Bakar, Y. A. (2013). Implementation of Teacher pedagogy Competence to Optimizing Learners Development in Public Primary School in Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(9).

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., & Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427–445.

Axelson, R. D., & Flick, A. (2010). Defining Student Engagement. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 43(1), 38–43.

Baharuddin. (2009). Pendidikan dan Psikologi Perkembangan. Yogyakarta: Ar-Ruzz Media.

Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., Phelps, G., & Ball, D. L. (2008). What Makes It Special ? Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 389–407.

Buchmann, M. (1982). The flight away from content in teacher education and teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 14(1), 61–68.

Carini, M., R., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 1–32.

Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Peterson, P. L., & Carey, D. A. (1988). Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of students' problem solving in elementary arithmetic. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 385–401.

Cochran, K. F. (1991). Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Tentative Model for Teacher Preparation. In the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago: ERIC. Retrieved from

Cochran, K. F. (1997). Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Teachers’ Integration of Subject Matter, Pedagogy, Students, and Learning Environments. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from

Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. (2015). Caep accreditation standards. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from

Garnett, P. (1988). Exemplary Practice in Science Classrooms. Science Education, 72(2), 197–208.

Graves, K., & Xu, S. (2000). Designing language courses: A guide for teachers. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Hong, G. Y., & Masood, M. (2014). Effects of Gamification on Lower Secondary School Students ’ Motivation and Engagement. International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, 8(12), 3448–3455. Retrieved from

Maryani, I., & Martaningsih, S. T. (2015). Correlation between Teacher’s PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) and Student's Motivation in Primary School. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(1), 38–44.

Milkova, S. (2016). Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning. Retrieved September 21, 2016, from

Paaso, A., & Korento, K. (2010). The Competent Teacher 2010 – 2020. Retrieved from

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform, 57(1), 1–22.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–23.

Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I’ve got it: A process model of perceived control and children's engagement and achievement in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 22.

Spratt, Mary, Pulverness, A., Williams, & Melanie. (2011). The TKT course. Ernst Klett Sprachen.

Sulisworo, D., Nasir, R., & Maryani, I. (2017). Identification of teachers ’ problems in Indonesia on facing global community. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 6(2), 81–90. Retrieved from

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2016). Student Engagement. Retrieved September 4, 2016, from

Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement literature review. The Higher Education Academy, 11(November), 1–5.

Zepke, N., & Linda, L. (2010). Improving student engagement: Ten proposals for action. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(3), 167–177.



Copyright (c) 2017 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
ISSN: 2089-9823, e-ISSN 2302-9277
Published by: Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (UAD) in collaboration with Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES)

View EduLearn Stats