Blended-problem based learning: critical thinking skills and information literacy in cell learning

Vitta Yaumul Hikmawati, Yeni Surya Ningsih


Critical thinking skills and information literacy are two competencies that students need to have in the millennial era that is loaded with a wide range of types and sources of information. This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of blended-problem based learning through Google Classroom application to increase students’ critical thinking and information literacy in material about cell. This research was a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest control group design. Two classes were selected randomly from eight Mathematics and Natural Science (MIPA) grade XI classes in state high school of SMA Negeri 1 Majalengka.  The experiment group experienced blended-problem based learning and the control group received a conventional-problem based learning (PBL). Critical thinking skills were measured through a test consisting of essay questions with a reliability of 0.73. Information literacy competency was measured through a questionnaire using 26 items that had been tested for validity and reliability, resulting in an alpha coefficient of 0.896. Data were analyzed quantitatively using independent t-test and produced p-value of 0.021 and 0.018 for critical thinking skills and information literacy respectively. This shows that statistically there are significant differences in students’ critical thinking skills and information literacy between blended-PBL and conventional-PBL. This research indicates that the blended-PBL strategy can be implemented as a learning strategy, especially in Biology to prepare students for the 21st century challenges.


Blended-PBL; Google Classroom; Information Literacy; Critical thinking; Cell

Full Text:



American Association of School Librarians, & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information literacy standards for student learning: Standards and indicators. Retrieved from

Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Retrieved from

Back, D. A., Haberstroh, N., Antolic, A., Sostmann, K., Schmidmaier, G., & Hoff, E. (2014). Blended learning approach improves teaching in a problem-based learning environment in orthopedics - a pilot study. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 17.

Derby, C., & Williams, F. (2010). The impact of problem based Learning, blended-problem based learning, and traditional lecture on student’s academic achievement in education. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 50–55). Retrieved from

Dogan, N. (2017). Blending problem based learning and history of science approaches to enhance views about scientific inquiry: New wine in an old bottle. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(10), 99–112.

Facione, P. A. (2011). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts. Retrieved from

Kazu, I. Y., & Demirkol, M. (2014). Effect of blended learning environment model on high school students’ academic achievement. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(1), 78–87. Retrieved from https://files.

Khoiriyah, U., Roberts, C., Jorm, C., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2015). Enhancing students’ learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking. BMC Medical Education, 15(1), 140.

Kong, S. C. (2014). Developing information literacy and critical thinking skills through domain knowledge learning in digital classrooms: An experience of practicing flipped classroom strategy. Computers & Education, 78, 160–173.

Kwan, L. S. L., & Yunus, M. M. (2015). Group participation and interaction in ESL wiki collaborative writing among malaysian gifted students. Asian Social Science, 11(2), 59–68.

Leibiger, C. A. (2011). “Google reigns triumphant”?: stemming the tide of googlitis via collaborative, situated information literacy instruction. Journal Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 30(4), 187–222.

Pinheiro, P. A. (2012). Collaborative writing by means of digital tools: resignifying textual production in the school context. International Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 1(1), 8–21. Retrieved from

Riadi, E. (2016). Statistika penelitian : Analisis manual dan IBM SPSS. Yogyakarta: Andi offset.

Saliba, R., Mussleman, P., Fernandes, M., & Bendriss, R. (2017). Promoting information literacy of pre-medical students through project-based learning: a pilot study. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 5(4), 1–15.

Schiffl, I. (2018). How information literate are junior and senior class biology students? Research in Science Education, 50, 773–789.

Triyanto, S. A., Prayitno, B. A., & Probosari, R. M. (2014). Penerapan model pembelajaran blended-problem solving melalui aplikasi moodle untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa kelas X-1 SMAN 3 Surakarta tahun pelajaran 2012/2013. BIO-PEDAGOGI: Jurnal Pembelajaran Biologi, 3(1), 99–108. Retrieved from

Vesisenaho, M., Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Havu-Nuutinen, S., Hartikainen, A., & Karkkainen, S. (2010). Blended learning with everyday technologies to activate students’collaborative learning. Science Education International, 21(4), 272–283. Retrieved from

Wenger, K. (2014). Problem-Based Learning and information literacy: A natural partnership. Pennsylvania Libraries: Research & Practice, 2(2), 142–154.

Yilmaz, M. B., & Orhan, F. (2010). Pre-serviceenglish teachers in blended learning environment  in respect to their learning approaches. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(1), 157–164. Retrieved from

Zurkowski, P. G. (1974). The information service environment relationships and priorities. Related paper no. 5. Retrieved from


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View J.Bioedukatika Stats

ISSN 2338-6630 (Print) | ISSN 2541-5646 (Online)
Organized by Department of Biology Education
Published by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Jl.Ringroad Selatan, dk Kragilan, Tamanan, Banguntapan, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia